Laminitis is a delicate hoof disorder that showcases the vulnerability of horses. Although it is not always fatal and horses can live with the condition, aggressive care, proper hoof maintenance, and a suitable diet are essential for their well-being. However, once a horse has experienced laminitis, it is likely to deal with the condition for the remainder of its life. On the other hand, there are cases in which the severity of laminitis is so extreme that euthanasia becomes necessary.
Table of Contents
Laminitis is a hoof condition that damages the tissues supporting the coffin bone within the hoof. It occurs when there is a disruption in blood flow, often due to a metabolic condition or ingestion of a toxic substance. Immediate attention is crucial to prevent further progression. If left untreated, the coffin bone can rotate downwards and penetrate the sole of the hoof.
The laminae, layers of folded tissue that connect the coffin bone to the hoof wall, rely on a consistent supply of blood flow. When the blood supply is disrupted, the laminae become damaged, causing the coffin bone to sink or rotate downwards. This results in the tip of the bone going down while the heel rises. The end stage of laminitis, known as founder, is characterized by rotation. It’s important to note that although laminitis and rotation are often used interchangeably, a horse can have laminitis without rotation.
The exact mechanism of laminitis is still unknown, but certain causes are well-established. Horses at risk of laminitis include those with Cushing’s disease, those that have consumed excessive amounts of grain or sugar-rich feed, those that have grazed on lush grass, and those that have been subjected to prolonged periods of running on asphalt.
While it is always advisable to consult a veterinarian when your horse is ill or injured, educating yourself about your horse’s diagnosis can help you provide appropriate care.
Identifying Signs and Symptoms
In the early stages of laminitis, a horse may not exhibit immediate signs of distress. The metabolic nature of laminitis means that it takes time for the body to realize that it cannot process an excess of sugars or handle the shock from excessive impact. Therefore, it is important to initiate treatment as soon as you notice that your horse has consumed grain or is walking tenderly after exposure to asphalt.
As damage to the laminae progresses, the horse will start to display signs of pain in the front feet. Classic indicators of laminitis include heat in the hoof and crouching backward to relieve weight from the front feet. While laminitis primarily affects the front hooves, the rear hooves can also be affected. The horse may lie down frequently, be hesitant to stand up, shift weight from leg to leg, and resist having its feet picked up.
Common signs of laminitis include:
- Lameness, especially when turning in circles
- Shifting of weight
- Heat in the hoof
- Increased pulse in the hooves
- Tiptoeing gait
- Pain in the toe region when tested
Understanding Pain in Horses with Laminitis
Laminitis causes varying levels of pain in horses, ranging from mild soreness to excruciating pain. The loss of blood flow to the laminae and subsequent tissue death contribute to the severity of pain. The level of pain experienced depends on the specific symptoms and their intensity.
Longevity of Horses with Laminitis
When promptly treated, horses with laminitis can live full lives. Urgent intervention can prevent or minimize rotation, allowing the horse to recover quickly. With proper veterinary care, hoof maintenance, and adequate healing time, horses can enjoy a long and fulfilling life while managing the condition.
However, if a horse experiences a rotation of 15 degrees or more, the prognosis is typically poor, and they may no longer be able to return to work. In such cases, euthanasia may be considered to prevent prolonged suffering and ensure a comfortable quality of life for the horse.
Riding After Laminitis
The ability of a horse to return to work after laminitis depends on the extent of the damage and its subsequent recovery. Some horses recover well and can resume normal activities, while others may only be suitable for low-impact exercises.
Before riding a horse following a bout of laminitis, coordination between the veterinarian and farrier is crucial. The damage to the foot needs to be assessed, and sufficient time must pass for the hoof capsule to grow over the coffin bone, if rotation has occurred. If there is little to no rotation, riding can resume after a reasonable healing period and proper shoes have been applied.
Movement is important for a horse’s healing process, as it helps with blood flow to the hoof and supports tissue repair. Light riding may be recommended by the veterinarian to encourage blood flow to the laminae and aid in recovery.
Immediate response and treatment play a critical role in managing laminitis effectively. The condition progresses from the developmental phase to the acute phase, which necessitates urgent veterinary intervention.
During the acute phase, the horse may not exhibit any clinical signs, making it even more essential to stay vigilant. Aggressive treatment, administered by a veterinarian, can interrupt the progression of laminitis and restore blood flow to the hoof capsule, minimizing damage to the hoof structures.
Steps to Take Before the Vet Arrives
While waiting for the veterinarian, you can provide initial care to alleviate the horse’s discomfort. Cold water or ice can be applied to cool down the feet and facilitate blood flow. You can hose the hooves with cold water and prepare a tub with ice and water. Once ready, place each foot in the tub for as long as possible.
Prepare a stall with deep bedding to provide a comfortable surface for the horse to stand on. Keep the horse in the stall until the veterinarian arrives and offer only water, refraining from providing forage or grain. If the veterinarian recommends anti-inflammatories and you don’t have them readily available, they will guide you on administration.
As a home remedy, you can create a makeshift support for the coffin bone using insulation board and strong tape from a hardware store. Cut the board into a rough hoof shape, close to the edge of each hoof. Then wrap the board to the hoof with the tape, adding additional layers as needed. This provides support and cushioning while walking.
Upon arrival, the veterinarian will assess the horse’s condition and determine the necessary course of action. They may administer intravenous anti-inflammatories for pain relief and to reduce swelling in the hooves. If the laminitis was triggered by grain consumption, the veterinarian may insert a nasogastric tube to pump mineral oil directly into the horse’s stomach, flushing out the grain and preventing further damage.
X-rays may be taken to assess any rotation of the coffin bone. However, in the acute phase, the extent of damage may not be fully visible, necessitating further X-rays at a later stage. The veterinarian may use hoof testers to identify areas of sensitivity in the sole, although these tests are not always definitive since the entire hoof can be sore. A nerve block may be applied to enable the veterinarian to lift a leg without the horse experiencing pain while standing. This block can also help detect laminitis-related gait issues.
After providing necessary treatment, medications, and advice, the veterinarian will schedule a follow-up visit to monitor the horse’s healing and recovery.
Diet and Shoeing
Once the acute phase has passed and the damage can be assessed, the most effective methods of managing laminitis involve diet adjustments and supportive shoeing. The horse’s digestive system will be delicate during this stage and will require a gentle diet. Proper shoeing provides support to the coffin bone as the laminae heal and promotes the horse’s comfort.
During the post-acute stage, it is crucial to avoid feeding the horse any form of sugar. This means eliminating molasses-containing sweet feed as well as hard feed with corn, barley, or oats. For hard keepers, consider supplementing their feed with a cup of vegetable oil as part of their feeding schedule. Additionally, transition the horse from fresh grass to a grazed-down pasture and offer low-quality hay soaked in water to aid digestion while reducing sugar intake. As the horse recovers, sugar can gradually be reintroduced into their diet.
Shoeing is vital for providing comfort and support during the recovery process. Farriers will make decisions based on the condition of the hoof and the advice provided by the veterinarian. Some horses may require a full heart bar shoe to support the coffin bone, while others may benefit from a reversed shoe to relieve pressure on the toe during hoof turnover.
Duration of the Acute Phase
Treated promptly, the acute phase of laminitis typically lasts anywhere from one to three days, depending on the severity and underlying cause. While addressing the cause can be swift, it takes time for toxins to be eliminated and for the horse’s body to respond to treatment.
Recovery from Severe Laminitis
The extent of recovery from severe laminitis depends on the degree of damage to the hoof. As mentioned earlier, a rotation of 15 degrees or more often leads to a poor prognosis. However, lower degrees of rotation offer better chances of recovery. Your veterinarian can provide more accurate advice and prognosis once the acute phase has passed and the horse begins the recovery process.
Fatality of Laminitis in Horses
Laminitis itself is not fatal, but it is crucial to assess when euthanasia is necessary for a horse with laminitis. If a horse experiences acute laminitis to the point where coffin bones rotate or penetrate the sole of the hoof, it will never recover. In severe cases, the hoof wall may separate from the coronary band, eventually causing it to fall off and leaving the coffin bone exposed. In such circumstances, the kindest decision is to euthanize the horse promptly to end its suffering. It is essential to make this decision in consultation with your veterinarian.
Accepting the need for euthanasia can be extremely challenging, especially when the horse appears healthy. However, when the point of no return has been reached, euthanasia is the best course of action. Severe coffin bone rotation causes prolonged pain, and there is no available treatment to reverse this damage. Remember that you have done everything possible for your horse before making this difficult decision.
To learn more about horse-related topics, visit 5 WS.